Pattern of Retinopathy: Although the locus of toxic damage is parafoveal in many eyes, Asian patients often show an extramacular pattern of damage. Dose: We recommend a maximum daily HCQ use of 5.0 mg/kg real weight, which correlates better with risk than ideal weight. Eye plaquenil Define plaquenil Medication reaction to plaquenil Mechanism of action The precise mechanism by which hydroxychloroquine exhibits activity against Plasmodium is not known. Hydroxychloroquine, like chloroquine, is a weak base and may exert its effect by concentrating in the acid vesicles of the parasite and by inhibiting polymerization of heme. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil® is a 4-amino-quinoline antimalarial medication that is widely used to treat systemic lupus erythematosus SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and related inflammatory and dermatological conditions. It is a hydroxylated version of chloroquine, with a similar mechanism of action. However, following an identical dose of. Hydroxychloroquine binds strongly to melanin and can deposit in melanin-containing tissues such as the skin and the eyes, which might explain certain tissue-specific mechanisms such as. Risk of Toxicity: The risk of toxicity is dependent on daily dose and duration of use. There are no similar demographic data for CQ, but dose comparisons in older literature suggest using 2.3 mg/kg real weight. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy mechanism Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity Rheumatology Oxford., Hydroxychloroquine DermNet NZ Chloroquine generic aralen 500mg tabletEye screening for plaquenilForgot plaquenil muscle weaknessChloroquine usmle HCQ is widely used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, particularly lupus and RA. It is generally well tolerated, but retinopathy is a concern. Retinopathy is rare, but is sight threatening, generally irreversible and may progress even after cessation of therapy. Damage may be subclinical. Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity Rheumatology.. Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine.. Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia. The idiosyncratic nature of this adverse effect may be related to interindividual differences in drug metabolism. To understand why only some patients develop retinopathy, better pharmacokinetic models need to be developed, and further elucidation of the precise mechanism of retinal damage is required. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are drugs with still incompletely understood mechanisms of action, but their ability to alter intracellular pH, suppress CD4+ T-cells activity and promote the activation of CD8+ T-cells makes them useful in an array of disorders of different etiologies 1 2. The recommendations on eye screening for hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine retinopathy have been revised by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. 22 It is strongly recommended that all patients beginning hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine therapy have a baseline examination within the first year of starting the drug to document any complicating.