Artemisinin based combination therapies or ACTs, introduced in the 1990s, are the most effective drugs we have ever had to treat malaria. Artemisinin, taken from the sweet wormwood plant (Artemisia annua), is used in combination with other anti-malarial drugs. Votamin b deficiency feom plaquenil Lupus nephritis and plaquenil Current status of drug-resistant malaria 10 3. Causes of resistance 12 3.1 Definition of antimalarial drug resistance 12 3.2 Malaria treatment failure 12 3.3 Mechanisms of antimalarial resistance 12 3.3.1 Chloroquine resistance 12 3.3.2 Antifolate combination drugs 13 3.3.3 Atovaquone 13 3.4 Factors contributing to the spread of resistance 13 Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of Plasmodium falciparum not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. P. falciparum has also developed resistance to nearly all of the other currently available antimalarial drugs, such as sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and quinine. In Southeast Asia, however, some malaria parasites have developed resistance to artemisinin-based drugs. Although artemisinin usually kills all malaria parasites, the use of a combination of drugs – as opposed to one – helps ensure that any parasites that remain will be killed by the other drug before the resistant parasites can spread. Drugs for chloroquine resistant malaria Chloroquine mechanism of drug action and resistance in., Chloroquine Resistant Malaria – Plaquenil and wet macular degeneration Types of Malaria Pills. Atovaquone -proguanil Malarone You’ll take this pill daily, starting 1 to 2 days before your trip, and you’ll keep taking for a week. Chloroquine This drug is taken once a week, starting about 1 to 2 weeks before your trip and continuing for 4 weeks after. But. Malaria Medications Common Malaria Pills Used to Treat and.. Drug Resistance in the Malaria-Endemic World - CDC. WHO Responding to antimalarial drug resistance. Chloroquine was an essential element of mass drug administration campaigns to combat malaria throughout the second half of the 20th century, and remains one of the World Health Organization’s essential medicines. However, after the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax began exhibiting resistance to the drug in the 1960s and 1980s, respectively, it was replaced by similar antimalarial compounds and combination therapies. Feb 28, 2019 Resistance to chloroquine, the first widely used antimalarial drug, first arose in the Greater Mekong shortly after World War II. Chloroquine-resistant strains eventually spread to Africa, which carries more than 90 percent of the global malaria burden. For reasons still unclear, resistance to older malaria drugs—including chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine—emerged in Pailin as well and then spread broadly, Plowe points out. "If.